Figure 2 Sketch of the complex network of stakeholders of the Butterfly House Industry and principal / major trade lines of pupae. I. Pupae are produced either by "individual breeders" (individuals / families producing more or less many pupae), "breeding cooperatives" (associations of individual breeders sharing facilities) and "butterfly farms" (privately owned with employed staff for breeding), some having their own exhibit. II. "Single-country-based suppliers" collect pupae for export to international suppliers and/or to live exhibits usually from a mix of sources in their vicinity/country, and often have their own farm and/or exhibit. "Global suppliers" trade with pupae from different countries and provide exhibits with a wide range of species, again often acting as exhibitors, too. III. Butterfly houses vary greatly in size, and they often purchase pupae from international suppliers, supported by material from national suppliers, rarely directly from breeders. Some exhibits or chains of exhibits have their own breeding facilities abroad or have exclusive bilateral contracts with farms, and are thus not involved in the main network. IV. The butterfly "art and souvenir" and V the butterfly "release" industries operate largely independently of the BHI, although there are some or sporadic connections. * = potential environmental risks occur at a number of points within the network.