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Conservation and Society
An interdisciplinary journal exploring linkages between society, environment and development
Conservation and Society
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   2011| October-December  | Volume 9 | Issue 4  
    Online since January 21, 2012

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It's like herding monkeys into a conservation enclosure: The formation and establishment of the Jozani-Chwaka Bay National Park, Zanzibar, Tanzania
Fred Saunders
October-December 2011, 9(4):261-273
This manuscript examines a project that is representative of an emerging trend of new generation Integrated Conservation Development Projects in parts of Africa that combine socio-economic development with an emphasis on local institutional change. These 'local' projects are interlinked with global networks of conservation interests that provide technical expertise and resourcing. In the Jozani-Chawka Bay area, project planners brokered a community governance and benefit sharing agreement that has been lauded as a watershed moment for conservation policy in Zanzibar. Key hurdles for establishing Zanzibar's first national park, the Jozani-Chwaka Bay National Park, were limiting community access to customary forest resources, farmer-red colobus monkey conflict, and setting up a supportive institutional arrangement. The conflict resolution and institutional strategies adopted by the conservation planners with the aid of international funding provide insights that help explain why the project has been able to maintain a 'fragile' localised compliance with conservation goals at the Jozani-Pete village. This has been achieved despite lingering resentment over red colobus crop damage claims, and perceptions of insignificant conservation related benefits flowing to individuals and communities. This finding raises broader concerns about whether containment strategies to ground fragile project arrangements are conducive to engendering the longer term support of local communities for new generation Integrated Conservation Development Projects.
  6,085 11,050 4
Invasive species in penguin worlds: An ethical taxonomy of killing for conservation
Thom van Dooren
October-December 2011, 9(4):286-298
This paper explores various attempts to manage predation threats to an endangered population of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) living in Sydney's North Harbour. Some of these threats have come from species that are generally termed 'exotic' (such as the red fox, Vulpes vulpes), while other threats have potentially come from 'natives' (such as the New Zealand fur seal, Arctocephalus forsteri). This paper explores the problematic notion of 'invasiveness' as it applies to native and introduced predators, and the role that these rhetorical distinctions play in positioning various species as 'threats' to the continuity of this penguin colony. In particular, the paper is concerned with conservation legislation and practice in New South Wales, and the unique kind of 'ethical work' done by these processes of classifying living things. Finally, the paper asks, in the absence of a simplistic-but helpful-correlation between exotic and invasive species, how might we understand and justify the conservation of an isolated colony of little penguins? What kinds of interventions (from humans and nonhumans) are warranted, and which are not? What might it mean to genuinely inhabit these difficulties, making conservation decisions outside of any space of simple and absolute answers?
  9,925 1,779 4
Conservation is sexy! What makes this so, and what does this make? An engagement with Celebrity and the environment
Sian Sullivan
October-December 2011, 9(4):334-345
This essay offers an engagement with Daniel Brockington's (2009) recent book Celebrity and the environment. I highlight the book's contribution to debate regarding processes of human displacement arising through biodiversity conservation under conditions of neoliberal capitalism. I first situate the book in relation to contemporary perspectives on displacement, justice, and human rights, using examples to illustrate complex and dynamic patterns of conservation inclusions and exclusions globally. This is followed by a summary of Brockington's typology of conservation celebrities, and of the ways in which celebrities assist with the amassing of conservation finance. I proceed to consider the roles of a celebrity-saturated mass media (and mediated) 'spectacle of conservation' in structuring social and consumptive engagements with the 'non-human' world globally. I draw attention to how diverse peoples in conservation landscapes might become part of the spectacle of conservation by reconfiguring themselves as cultural objects of touristic consumerism in a script not necessarily of their choosing. By way of acknowledging the significance of social networks and alliances in influencing conservation perspectives and practice, I close with a disclaimer regarding my own long-term collaborations with the author of Celebrity and the environment.
  9,672 1,025 7
Land reform in Bolivia: The forestry question
Lorenzo Pellegrini, Anirban Dasgupta
October-December 2011, 9(4):274-285
In this paper we discuss forestry issues related to land reform in Bolivia. We find that although the current land reform satisfies most of the conditions necessary for adequately addressing development issues in the agrarian sector, it does not deal with many challenges related to forest management, and in fact contains provisions conflicting with the objectives of sustainable forest management. Given that a large part of the land being titled is actually forest land, omissions of, and conflicts with, the objectives of sustainable forest management are critical, and may have harmful ramifications for the preservation of forest resources as well as poverty reduction within forest-dependent communities.
  5,513 2,292 6
Logging or conservation concession: Exploring conservation and development outcomes in Dzanga-Sangha, Central African Republic
Marieke Sandker, Bruno Bokoto-de Semboli, Philipp Roth, Cyril Péllisier, Manuel Ruiz-Pérez, Jeff Sayer, Andrea K Turkalo, Ferdinand Omoze, Bruce M Campbell
October-December 2011, 9(4):299-310
The Dzanga-Sangha landscape consists of a national park surrounded by production forest. It is subject to an integrated conservation and development project (ICDP). In collaboration with the ICDP personnel, a participatory model was constructed to explore wildlife conservation and industrial logging scenarios for the landscape. Three management options for the landscape's production forest were modelled: (I) 'predatory logging', exploitation by a logging company characterised by a lack of long-term plans for staying in the landscape, (II) sustainable exploitation by a certified logging company, and (III) conservation concession with no commercial timber harvesting. The simulation outcomes indicate the extreme difficulties to achieve progress on either conservation or development scenarios. Both logging scenarios give best outcomes for development of the local population. However, the depletion of bushmeat under the predatory logging scenario negatively impacts the population, especially the BaAka pygmy minority who most strongly depend on hunting for their income. The model suggests that conservation and development outcomes are largely determined by the level of economic activity, both inside and outside the landscape. Large investments in the formal sector in the landscape without any measures for protecting wildlife (Scenario I) leads to some species going nearly extinct, while investments in the formal sector including conservation measures (Scenario II) gives best outcomes for maintaining wildlife populations. The conservation concession at simulated investment levels does not reduce poverty, defined here in terms of monetary income. Neither does it seem capable of maintaining wildlife populations since the landscape is already filled with settlers lacking economic opportunities as alternatives to poaching.
  4,873 741 3
Cultural perspectives of land and livelihoods: A case study of Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve in far-Western Nepal
Lai Ming Lam
October-December 2011, 9(4):311-324
Recent debates on human displacement caused by conservation have increasingly questioned: firstly, its justification in the name of biodiversity conservation; and secondly, the effectiveness of compensation in preventing impoverishment. Land compensation is widely practiced and it is a crucial part of contemporary people-centred conservation resettlement strategies. In this article, using the case of the Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve in Nepal, I argue that policy-makers' belief that the social impacts of dislocation can be properly mitigated by economic-focused resettlement programmes alone is a myth. They have ignored the close relationships between place, social networks and livelihoods. A study of a displaced indigenous community known as Rana Tharus in far-western Nepal shows that a strong sense of nostalgia and homesickness is evident in this community. Displaced Ranas continue to idealise their old abode as 'paradise on Earth' while experiencing their new home as only promoting poverty, helplessness and danger. Their anger is due to the fact that they no longer have the mutual help or support from their neighbours as they once did in their old abode. From the Ranas' point of view, the old land had both high economic and social value. The study demonstrates that the act of displacement is a violent disruption of a community's daily social contacts. The destruction of the Ranas' social networks has not only led to their dispossession and threatened their livelihoods, but has also made them vulnerable, because these traditional social webs provided important alternative livelihoods in a rural economy. As a consequence, it has further reinforced their sense of nostalgia. The cultural and social meanings of land must be obtained prior to implementing any resettlement policies. The study indicates that if displacement is truly unavoidable for conserving biodiversity, more comprehensive rehabilitation resettlement policies than those that currently exist are needed.
  4,227 704 -
The Luiz Saldanha Marine Park: An overview of conflicting perceptions
Gonçalo Carneiro
October-December 2011, 9(4):325-333
The involvement of local populations in the different stages of establishing marine protected areas has been recognised as a key factor for the success of these initiatives. In this paper, the case of the Luiz Saldanha Marine Park is presented as an example of a conservation area whose development is presently being affected by a high degree of conflict and mistrust. The sources and the nature of the main conflicts are reviewed and linked first to the history of the development of the management plan of the park, and then to specific elements of this plan. Consequences for the current status and future development of the park are discussed.
  4,283 560 3